Roemer, "undated". Department of Economics. John Roemer, John P. Grabka, Markus M. More information Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available. This author has had papers announced in NEP.
Rudolf Winter-Ebmer | IDEAS/RePEc
These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided. NEP-GER : German Papers 30 Author is listed NEP-HAP : Economics of Happiness 20 Author is listed NEP-SOG : Sociology of Economics 14 Author is listed NEP-HEA : Health Economics 11 Author is listed NEP-NEU : Neuroeconomics 9 The survey occurred between July and September Response bias was corrected, as the survey data were adapted to the composition of the statistical population on the basis of official statistics Microcensus by applying weighting in accordance with the main characteristics school-leaving qualification, gender, year of birth, federal state Eberhard et al.
The aim of our analyses is to examine the school-leaving qualification achieved by the young people at the end of schooling and to investigate their transition from school to company-based or fully qualifying training. It should be noted that in Germany, attendance at school does not always end when a pupil leaves general schooling.
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A small proportion of young people continue to attend a vocational school such as a partially qualifying full-time vocational school or a specialised upper secondary school to obtain a higher-level school-leaving qualification. For this reason, directly subsequent attendance at vocational schools where young people were able to improve their formal school-leaving qualification is also ascribed to schooling. As a standard for successful transition to training , we consider whether young people succeeded in progressing to fully qualifying training within two years of finishing schooling.
Level of school-leaving qualification obtained is differentiated at three levels no qualification higher than the lower secondary school-leaving certificate, intermediate secondary school-leaving certificate, higher education entrance qualification. The intention is for the hypotheses relating to the effects on the transition to company-based or fully qualifying training to be tested via binary logistic regression models.
The analyses on company-based training only include young people who sought such training upon the completion of their schooling. In the analyses involving fully qualifying training, we include all young people, regardless of whether they pursued a training opportunity of this type or not. In addition to company-based VET, fully qualifying training also encompasses school-based VET, extra-company dual training and study at an institute of higher education.
To investigate the individual questions, it is necessary to build separate regression models for the different groups of young people to be able to compare the results with one another.
Gert G. Wagner
Calculations are, therefore, first performed for all young people, then for young people from a migrant background and, finally, for male and female migrants. No separate models are included for young people not from a migrant background due to space constraints.
The problem with group comparisons in logistic regression is that the error variance is uniformly fixed in the estimation procedure but unobserved heterogeneity between the groups may differ. Effect sizes such as the odds ratios are then not comparable between the models. For this reason, we report the average marginal effects AME instead of the odds ratios.
In the case of categorical variables, the AMEs indicate by how many percentage points the average likelihood of the event of interest in the group observed differs from the likelihood in the respective reference group.
View all notes Averaged measurements such as the AMEs are virtually undistorted by unobserved heterogeneity and can, therefore, safely be used for group comparisons Auspurg and Hinz Auspurg, Katrin , and Thomas Hinz. The only young people who can be included in the analyses on the transition to training are those whose schooling ended no more recently than two years before the time of the survey.
To investigate a uniform random sample, we also restrict the analyses on the acquisition of the school-leaving qualification to this group of persons. The number of cases considered is therefore significantly lower than the overall sample size achieved in the BIBB Transitional Study.
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The migrant background, social origin and gender of the young people represent the central variables in the analysis see the distribution of relevant variables in Table A1 , Appendix 1. Migration status is defined in the following terms.
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No migrant background is assumed if a young person has German citizenship, if he or she only learned German as a child and if his or her father and mother were born in Germany. If any one of these conditions does not apply, a migrant background is assumed. In the models that exclusively relate to young people from a migrant background, we also undertake additional differentiation, according to the region of origin of the family. The aim here is to reveal possible differences within the group of young migrants. The investigation of such differences is, however, not the objective of the present paper.
For this reason, no additional detailed consideration of the results is undertaken. View all notes. We use two variables to account for the social origin of the young people. Mannheim: ZUMA. View all notes educational classification system, which is based on a combination of general and vocational qualifications.
Our classification is informed by the highest level of education, regardless of whether it is held by the father or the mother. If the father had not lived with the family for the majority of the time, the occupational status of the mother was documented and was also taken into account in our analyses. Cases in which the young person had not predominantly lived with his or her father or in which the parents had never worked were excluded.
The following tools were used: Ganzeboom, Harry B. View all notes The lowest value contained within this index, which is based on empirical surveys in 42 countries, is 12 auxiliary agricultural worker. The highest value is 89 judge. There is, however, a problem, as information on the occupational activity of the father is relatively and frequently absent.
This is true of of the total cases available for the analyses. Excluding these cases would significantly impair the validity of the analyses, particularly in the group of young people from a migrant background, which is relatively small. Because both variables had a fixed value area, relevant respective limitation was also undertaken in the case of the imputation. The predictors were the estimations of all additional variables in the data-set that were included as dependent or independent variables in the regression models.
We also include a number of additional relevant influential variables in the regression models to test the hypotheses. These have the exclusive function of serving as control variables. Along with the school-leaving qualification, the type of school last attended general or vocational and average mark upon leaving general schooling 10 The BIBB Transitional Study did not always record the average mark achieved on the final certificate for vocational schools attended.
View all notes are also included in the models relating to the transition to company-based or fully qualifying training. Another important general condition included in the case of company-based training is whether a young person has additionally sought school-based training or higher education.
Indicators of various general conditions in the region of residence of the young people federal state at the time at which general schooling ended are also included.
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We have taken these indicators from various statistical sources or calculated them ourselves on the basis of such sources. The most important findings from the analyses are described below. In each case, the extent of the difference between the young people from a migrant background and the overall group of all young people and between males and females is presented in advance on the basis of bivariate evaluations. We then test our hypotheses using regression models. In the text, we address only those results that are relevant to the questions or hypothesis testing.
The influence of control variables is not considered. Nevertheless, the regression coefficients are provided in full in each case in the results tables. As Table 1 clearly shows, young people from a migrant background are considerably more likely than young people overall to end their schooling having achieved a qualification no higher than the lower secondary school-leaving certificate and are much less likely to leave school with a higher education entrance qualification.
Female migrants are considerably less likely than male migrants to achieve a qualification no higher than the lower secondary school-leaving certificate but are significantly more likely to obtain a higher education entrance qualification. At the end of their schooling, young people from a migrant background are equally as likely as young people overall to seek a company-based training place, although there are significant differences between young people with and without a higher education entrance qualification cf.
Table 2. Overall, male migrants are more likely than female migrants to seek company-based training, whereas the latter are more likely to be interested in school-based VET. Because female migrants are significantly more likely to be in possession of a higher education entrance qualification, the proportion of them who intend to enter higher education is significantly greater than the corresponding proportion of male migrants.
As Table 3 indicates, young migrants who seek a company-based training place at the end of their schooling are less likely to progress to company-based VET within two years than the comparison group of young people as a whole. After differentiating by school, a lower rate of progression is revealed for migrants who have achieved a qualification no higher than the lower secondary school-leaving certificate or who are in possession of the intermediate secondary school-leaving certificate.
In contrast, migrants with a higher education entrance qualification are slightly more likely to succeed in finding a company-based training place than the overall group with a higher education entrance qualification. Although female migrants are less likely than male migrants to make a successful progression to company-based training, this is virtually only true in the case of an intermediate secondary school-leaving qualification and does not apply if a higher education entrance qualification is held.
The testing of the hypotheses regarding the transition to company-based training using logistic regression models built for this purpose cf.